El Gran Proyecto del Río Artificial libio
El Gran Proyecto del Río Artificial libio (GMMR) es el mayor proyecto individual nunca visto, y fue totalmente financiado por el pueblo libio sin un solo dinar de ninguna entidad extranjera.
El Proyecto estuvo basado en la idea del líder libio Moammar al Gaddafi. Se encontraba en su última fase para abastecer de agua limpia y potable a toda Libia, procedente del subsuelo del Sahara (desierto). Mientras Obama lideró la agresión de la OTAN sobre Libia en 2011.
The Great Man Made River (GMMR) is the largest single project ever, and has been wholly financed by the Libyan people, without even a single "Penny", form any foreign entity. The project was based on the idea of the Libyan leader Muammar Al Gaddafi, and had been in the final stage of providing all of Libya with clean drinking water, from below the dessert, as the Obama lead NATO war on Libya started in 2011. Please visit again, as we are changing all of our websites, step by step, to MOBILE friendly version! Websites already mobile friendly: * English.AlGaddafi.org / German.AlGaddafi.org /
GreenBook.AlGaddafi.org / Great Man Made River In the ninth month of the year (1984) began work on a Great Man Made River to transport groundwater basins infidels and bed and Tazrbu and Fezzan in the south to the cities of Benghazi and Sirte and Tripoli, Tobruk and other coastal cities in the north through the system, huge pipes huge total extension of about (3.380 ) kilometers was set up two plants in the bed and Brega for the provision of these tubes made of material concrete the previous stress and is buried in the trenches of the underground at a depth of (7) meters have been drilled (960) wells at depths ranging from (450) meters, and between (650) meters in the basin Tazrbu bed and Fezzan and Kufra. Stages of the industrial river The first phase Contain the first stage on the two systems of pipes the first stretch of Tazrbu to Sellouk and the second from the bed to the Sirte included the system first drilling (120) wells and D (800) kilometers of pipes of Tazrbu to Benghazi and produces field Tazrbu million cubic meters of water per day exploit (98 ) wells and the rest is just a precaution. Of the bed start system pipes the following which contains the collection network strength (126) wells of which is used (113) and the remaining reserves of the bed starts the flow of million cubic meters of water per day in two parallel lines to the tank Ajdabiya then Ajdabiya heading another branch of the system holds ( 1.18) million cubic meters of water east to Benghazi and another branch heading west towards the city of Sirte carries (820) thousand cubic meters of water. Phase II This topic is aimed to phase transfer of (2.5) million cubic meters of water from wells located in two fields in the Mount Al_husaona. Oriented system to the coastal areas in western mass that extends from the western Al Heisha new about easy Ajafarh and land located between Alchuirv to Tarhunah length of the system around me (1676) kilometers and extend the system with water (484) wells card (2) million cubic meters a day. At this stage, begin collecting water in the pipe network especially flowing through the water collection tanks and then enter the pumping stations located at the end of the well fields mission push water through the highland areas until you reach the sloping land and off after that flow naturally toward the Alchuirv then subdivided the line into two branches the central branch heading north Until it reaches near Tarhunah and section east off in the direction of the north-east and when the plug follows the line path along the coastal road passing near the cities of Misurata, Zeliten and five until it reaches the Qara Bolli where the reservoir budget on high (160) meters above sea level and from this reservoir is connected to water to the area in and around Tripoli, in addition to the territory of the fertile plain Alajafarh. The third stage This phase aims to add (1.68) million cubic meters of water a day-to-energy first and second phases will be pumping this amount of additional field wells in the basin of the infidels, and composed this stage of the three lines, first heading to the south of Green Mountain and ventralis and the second stems from the infidels, and joining the line north of the first phase fields Tazrbu and third connecting first and second phases. And the completion of the Phase III project have been completed and the river's total water-borne (6.1) million cubic meters a day. Objectives of the River Project 1. Stop the growing clouds of limited groundwater reserves in the coastal cities and stop saline intrusion from the sea to drinking water and agricultural land. 2. Farming close to (180) thousand hectares, achieving self-sufficiency of a mass of food products where the strategy will be allocated more than (80%) of river water for agriculture. 3. The creation of light industries and other medium-heavy and a third advantage of the abundance of water and add to the GDP 4. Stop the migration from the countryside to the cities and fight against desertification and solve obsessed with food security and the creation of the mass people economically and developmentally for the post-oil. Facts and Figures 1. Experts estimate that the amount of fresh water that will flow through the pipeline to ensure sufficient reserves, the mass of water to more than (50) years on the basis of six million cubic meters of supplies a day. 2. According to studies, the size of the underground stock of Kufra Basin over the volume of water flowing from the Nile Basin over the (220) years. 3. Equal to the volume of water that flow daily half the size of the oil that is produced each day from oil fields in the world. 4. The capacity of the bed and Brega manufacturers for the production of pipe (220) tube in the day, equivalent to five times greater production plant in the world. 5. The length of wire wrapped around the (250) A tube which form the body of the river in the first stage enough to wrap around the globe (230) times. 6. Upon completion of stages of the river which entered the material in its implementation as follows: - · (547.000) tube · (5.200.000 tons) of cement · (24,000,000) tons of rubble and gravel · (4.300.000) kilometers of steel wire · (43.000.000) kilometers from sheets of iron and steel · (155.000.000) cubic meters of soil excavation. GMMR (GREAT MAN-MADE RIVER) WATER SUPPLY PROJECT, LIBYA Contracts were awarded in 2001-02 for the next phase of Libya's Great Man-Made River Project, an enormous, long-term undertaking to supply the country's needs by drawing water from aquifers beneath the Sahara and conveying it along a network of huge underground pipes. In October 2001, the Great Man-Made River Authority (GMRA) awarded an $82 million contract for the construction of major new pumping facilities to a consortium led by Frankenthal KSB Fluid Systems. In January the following year, the Nippon Koei / Halcrow consortium was selected to provide the preliminary engineering and design works for Phase III of the operation, worth $15.5 million. The pumping station is scheduled to be completed in the summer of 2004 and KSB will subsequently be responsible for servicing the plant and providing technical support for one year after completion. The preliminary stages of phase III run until June 2005, though it is anticipated that GMRA will invite tenders for the detailed design and construction works towards the end of 2004. When completed, phase III, which requires an additional 1,200km of pipeline, will ultimately increase the total daily supply capacity of the existing system to 3.68 million m³ and provide a further 138,000m³/day to Tobruk and the coast. BACKGROUND In 1953, the search for new oilfields in the deserts of southern Libya led to the discovery not only of the significant oil reserves, but also vast quantities of fresh water trapped in the underlying strata. The majority of this water was collected between 38,000 and 14,000 years ago, though some pockets are only 7,000 years old. There are four major underground basins. The Kufra basin, lying in the south east, near the Egyptian border, covers an area of 350,000km², forming an aquifer layer over 2,000m deep, with an estimated capacity of 20,000km³ in the Libyan sector. The 600m-deep aquifer in the Sirt basin is estimated to hold over 10,000km³ of water, while the 450,000km² Murzuk basin, south of Jabal Fezzan, is estimated to hold 4,800km³. Further water lies in the Hamadah and Jufrah basins, which extend from the Qargaf Arch and Jabal Sawda to the coast. The GMR project - the world's largest engineering venture - is intended to transport water from these aquifers to the northern coastal belt, to provide for the country's 5.6 million inhabitants and for irrigation. Intended to be the showpiece of the Libyan revolution, Colonel Moammar Gaddafi called it the "eighth wonder of the world". First conceived in the late 1960s, the initial feasibility studies were conducted in 1974 and work began ten years later. The project, which still has an estimated 25 years to run, was designed in five phases. Each one is largely separate in itself but will eventually combine to form an integrated system. PHASES I AND II The first and largest phase, providing 2 million m³/day along a 1,200km pipeline from As-Sarir and Tazerbo to Benghazi and Sirt, via the Ajdabiya reservoir, was formally inaugurated in August 1991. This was a massive undertaking, using a quarter of a million sections of concrete pipe, 2.5 million t of cement, 13 million t of aggregate, 2 million km of pre-stressed wire and requiring 85 million m³ of excavation, for a finished cost of $14 billion. The Tazerbo wellfield consists of both production and piezometric observation wells and yields around 1 million m³/day at a rate of 120L/s per well. Only 98 of the 108 production wells are used, with the others on stand-by. A collection network conveys the water to a 170,000m³ off-line steel header tank. From here, the main conveyance system is routed 256km to the north, to two similar header tanks at Sarir, where the second Phase I wellfield is located. A further 1 million m³ is produced here, using 114 of the 126 production wells, at an average flow rate of 102L/s per well. The wells at both Tazerbo and Sarir are about 450m deep and are equipped with submersible pumps at a depth of 145m. From Sarir, two parallel, 4m-diameter pipelines convey the now chlorine-treated water to the 4 million m³ Ajdabiya holding reservoir, 380km to the north. The water flows from this 900m-diameter reservoir through two pipelines, one heading west to Sirt and the other north to Benghazi. Each pipeline discharges into a circular earth embankment end reservoir, with a storage capacity of 6.8 million m³ at Sirt and 4.7 million m³ at Benghazi, which have been designed to balance fluctuations in supply and demand. In addition, large reservoirs - 37 million m³ in the Sirt area and 76 million m³ in Benghazi - have been built to act as storage facilities for summer or drought conditions. Phase II delivers 1 million m³/day from the Fezzan region to the fertile Jeffara plain in the western coastal belt and also supplies Tripoli. The system starts at a wellfield at Sarir Qattusah, consisting of 127 wells distributed along three east-west collector pipelines and ultimately feeds a 28 million m³ terminal reservoir at Suq El Ahad. PHASE III Phase III falls into two main parts. Firstly, it will provide the planned expansion of the existing Phase I system, adding an additional 1.68 million m³/day along with 700km of new pipeline and new pumping stations to produce a final total capacity to 3.68 million m³/day. Secondly, it will supply 138,000m³/day to Tobruk and the coast from a new wellfield at Al Jaghboub. This will require the construction of a reservoir south of Tobruk and the laying of a further 500km of pipeline. The preliminary engineering and design contract runs for 41 months and includes geotechnical and topographic surveys. The conceptual designs phase features extensive consideration of pipeline routing and profiling, hydraulics, pumping stations, M&E, control / communications system, reservoirs and other structures, corrosion control, power, operational support and maintenance provision. The evaluation of tenders for the detailed design is expected in the first quarter of 2005. The last two phases of the project involve the extension of the distribution network together with the construction of a pipeline linking the Ajdabiya reservoir to Tobruk and finally the connection at Sirt of the eastern and western systems into a single network. When completed, irrigation water from the GMR will enable about 155,000ha of land to be cultivated - echoing the Libyan leader's original prediction that the project would make the desert as green as the country's flag. KEY PLAYERS The project is owned by the Great Man-made River Authority and funded by the Libyan Government. Brown & Root and Price Brothers produced the original project design and the main contractor for the initial phases was Dong Ah, with Enka Construction and Al Nah acting as sub-contractors. The preliminary engineering and design contractor for Phase III is Nippon Koei / Halcrow consortium. The Frankenthal KSB consortium won the pumping station construction and technical support contract and SNC-Lavalin are responsible for the pipe production plant O&M. Libyan Cement supplied the concrete. Thane-Coat and Harkmel provided pipeline coating services and Corrintec supplied the cathodic protection system. Thyssen Krupp Fördertechnik provided technical services for the excavation planning and a number of local companies carried out elements of the construction and ancillary work. SPECIFICATIONS - GMR (GREAT MAN-MADE RIVER) WATER SUPPLY PROJECT, LIBYA Key Data Phase I Provide 2 million m³/day along 1,200km pipeline from As-Sarir and Tazerbo to the Ajdabiya reservoir to Benghazi and Sirt Phase II Pumping from the south western aquifer (Fezzan) to Tripoli and Jeffara plain Designed for future expansion in Phase III Phase III Expansion of existing Phase 1 system; additional 1.68 million m³/day (increasing total capacity to 3.68 million m³/day); 8 new pumping stations; 700km of new pipeline Supply 138,000m³/day to Tobruk and the coast; new wellfield at Al Jaghboub; reservoir south of Tobruk; 500km of new pipeline Phase IV Extension of distribution network; construction of a pipeline linking the Ajdabiya reservoir to Tobruk Phase V Connection of the eastern and western systems into a single network in Sirt Sarir to Sirt 800km Tazerbo to Benghazi 783km Average water flow rate 0.95m/s Transit time Around 9 days Murzuk basin raw water soluble salt content 300ppm Kufra basin raw water soluble salt content 250ppm Phase I power demand 65MW Power lines Sarir wellfield - 66kV transmission line; Tazerbo wellfield - 220kV national power line, transformed down to 66kV at substation Project Timeline Project initiated 1983 Work commenced 1984 Initial soil resistivity survey 1989 First water received April 1990 Phase I (Sarir to Benghazi) inaugurated August 1991 Cathodic protection system implemented 1995 Phase II (Tripoli supply) completed September 1996 Phase II Jeffara plain 2000 Pumping station contract awarded October 2001 Pipe production plant O&M contract awarded 2002 Phase III assignment period January 2002 to June 2005 Pumping station completion (expected) Summer 2004 Pumping station service and technical support contract initial term 2004-05 Estimated time to final completion 25 years Cost Phase I $14 billion Pipe production plant O&M contract $350 million Water pumping station turnkey construction $82 million Phase III preliminary engineering / design $15.5 million Total cost $27 billion (2004 estimate) Key Players Owner Great Man-made River Authority Funding Government of Libya Original project design Brown & Root / Price Brothers Cy Main contractor - initial phases Dong Ah Sub-contractors Enka Construction & Industries; Thyssen Krupp Fördertechnik; Al Nahr Co. Main contractor - phase III Nippon Koei and Halcrow Pipe production plant operation and maintenance SNC-Lavalin Concrete Libyan Cement Pipeline coating Thane-Coat; Harkmel Cathodic protection system Corrintec Pumping station construction / service and technical support contract Frankenthal KSB Fluid Systems Consortium